Predicting House Price in Multiple Regions Using XGBoost and Dynamic Workflows

In this tutorial, we will understand how to predict house prices in multiple regions using XGBoost, and dynamic workflows in Flyte.

We will split the generated dataset into train, test and validation set.

Next, we will create two dynamic workflows in Flyte, that will:

  1. Generate and split the data for multiple regions.

  2. Train the model using XGBoost and generate predictions.

Let’s get started with the example!

First, let’s import the required packages into the environment.

import typing

import pandas as pd
from flytekit import Resources, dynamic, workflow

We define a try-catch block to import data preprocessing functions from here.

    from .house_price_predictor import fit, generate_and_split_data, predict
except ImportError:
    from house_price_predictor import fit, generate_and_split_data, predict

We initialize a variable to represent columns in the dataset. The other variables help generate the dataset.

# initialize location names to predict house prices in these regions.

Data Generation and Preprocessing

We call the data generation and data preprocessing functions to generate train, test, and validation data. First, let’s create a NamedTuple that maps variable names to their respective data types.

dataset = typing.NamedTuple(

Next, we create a dynamic() workflow to generate and split the data for multiple regions.

@dynamic(cache=True, cache_version="0.1", limits=Resources(mem="600Mi"))
def generate_and_split_data_multiloc(
    locations: typing.List[str],
    number_of_houses_per_location: int,
    seed: int,
) -> dataset:
    train_sets = []  # create empty lists for train, validation, and test subsets
    val_sets = []
    test_sets = []
    for _ in locations:
        _train, _val, _test = generate_and_split_data(number_of_houses=number_of_houses_per_location, seed=seed)
    # split the dataset into train, validation, and test subsets
    return train_sets, val_sets, test_sets

Training and Generating Predictions

We create another dynamic() workflow to train the model and generate predictions. We can use two different methods to fit the model and generate predictions, but including them in the same dynamic workflow will parallelize the tasks together, i.e., the two tasks together run in parallel for all the regions.

@dynamic(cache=True, cache_version="0.1", limits=Resources(mem="600Mi"))
def parallel_fit_predict(
    multi_train: typing.List[pd.DataFrame],
    multi_val: typing.List[pd.DataFrame],
    multi_test: typing.List[pd.DataFrame],
) -> typing.List[typing.List[float]]:
    preds = []

    # generate predictions for multiple regions
    for loc, train, val, test in zip(LOCATIONS, multi_train, multi_val, multi_test):
        model = fit(loc=loc, train=train, val=val)
        preds.append(predict(test=test, model_ser=model))

    return preds

Lastly, we define a workflow to run the pipeline.

def multi_region_house_price_prediction_model_trainer(
    seed: int = 7, number_of_houses: int = NUM_HOUSES_PER_LOCATION
) -> typing.List[typing.List[float]]:
    # generate and split the data
    split_data_vals = generate_and_split_data_multiloc(

    # fit the XGBoost model for multiple regions in parallel
    # generate predictions for multiple regions
    predictions = parallel_fit_predict(

    return predictions

Running the Model Locally

We can run the workflow locally provided the required libraries are installed. The output would be a list of lists of house prices based on region, generated using the XGBoost model.

if __name__ == "__main__":